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Dr Chuma: Common questions about Food and Vegan Diets

Common questions about Food and Plant-Based Diets

WINE. Why is it not “Vegan”?

Although this may sound like a silly question, many wines are technically not vegan because of how they are processed.

A brief history of wine. The earliest archaeological evidence of wine comes from Jiahu village in central China, almost 10,000 years ago. According to Scientific AGoldwine xmerican, traces of a honey and rice-based wine were found on pottery shards. It’s speculated that it was likely made from a blend of the hawthorn fruit and wild grapes. People in the areas now representing Armenia and Georgia experimented with fermentation of grapes as early as 7,400 years ago. Several cultures throughout history, from the old Egyptian god and lord of wine Shesmu to the Greek god Dionysus (or Bacchus, if you’re Roman) have associated wine with divinity. It’s still used in Catholic mass to this day.

In a 1779 letter to French economist André Morellet, founding father of the U.S. Benjamin Franklin wrote, “Behold the rain which descends from heaven upon our vineyards; there it enters the roots of the vines, to be changed into wine; a constant proof that God loves us, and loves to see us happy.

The modern wine market is going strong. The total U.S. sales topped $62.7 billion in 2017. At 2.94 gallons per person each year, the U.S. is the largest wine consuming nation by volume. Like any other industry, wine is shaped by consumer trends. Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon are the top 2 favorites, but rosé is fast-growing, with a 59% increase in value in 2017, according to Nielsen data.

What Makes Wine Not Vegan? At its core, wine seems vegan. It’s just fermented grape juice. But a filtering process known as “fining,” which removes particles that settle to the bottom of the bottle and make wine hazy often uses animal products in the process. Traditional fining agents include gelatin (which comes from animal cartilage), egg whites, milk proteins (casein), isinglass (a kind of gelatin obtained from fish) and the dried swim bladder of fish. There are vegan alternatives, such as kaolin clay, bentonite clay and activated charcoal, but animal-based fining agents are cheaper since they are throw-away byproducts of animal agriculture.

Fining wine is more a matter of customer preference than necessity. In fact, sediment in wine ad to the taste but customers erroneously think it’s a sign of a bad wine. In the industry, these sediments are known as “dregs,” and despite the name, they’re not a bad thing. Dregs are essentially comprised of dead yeast cells, grape solids, tartrates, tannins, and phenolics. Tartrates give the wine a tart flavor and you may have even seen them in the form of red or white crystals on the side of the bottle. There are also sediments known as “gross lees” and “fine lees”. These are produced during the wine making process and they settle to the bottom of the wine barrel or vat. These are completely fine and do not impact on taste or quality at all. Some winemakers leave these in on purpose. There may be other reasons why a vineyard may choose to filter its wine, such as covering a bad harvest.

Vegan Certification Label

If you’re avoiding animal products, how can you ensure wine is vegan? It’s not as simple as reading the label.

There are databases like Barnivore, a database of nearly 45,000 alcoholic beverages, that lists vegan-friendly drinks. Or, you can buy from a source that only offers vegan wine. There’s also BevVeg, a law firm that provides vegan certification for food and beverage companies in more than 70 countries. BevVeg also has a free mobile app for both Android and iPhones with a database of over 50,000 wines.

There are at least 64 ingredients that can be added to wine without needing disclosure on the label, ranging from animal-based fining agents to color additives (such as MegaPurple, a grape concentrate added to “color correct” wine), oak chips (to replicate the flavor of aging in an oak wine barrel) and stabilizers.

If you see the BevVeg logo, your wine is vegan

You can see the full article on Dr. Chuma’s Wellness Site 

This article originally appeared on Dr. Chuma’s Wellness Site 

Common questions about Food and Plant-Based Diets

WINE. Why is it not “Vegan”?

Although this may sound like a silly question, many wines are technically not vegan because of how they are processed.

A brief history of wine. The earliest archaeological evidence of wine comes from Jiahu village in central China, almost 10,000 years ago. According to Scientific AGoldwine xmerican, traces of a honey and rice-based wine were found on pottery shards. It’s speculated that it was likely made from a blend of the hawthorn fruit and wild grapes. People in the areas now representing Armenia and Georgia experimented with fermentation of grapes as early as 7,400 years ago. Several cultures throughout history, from the old Egyptian god and lord of wine Shesmu to the Greek god Dionysus (or Bacchus, if you’re Roman) have associated wine with divinity. It’s still used in Catholic mass to this day.

In a 1779 letter to French economist André Morellet, founding father of the U.S. Benjamin Franklin wrote, “Behold the rain which descends from heaven upon our vineyards; there it enters the roots of the vines, to be changed into wine; a constant proof that God loves us, and loves to see us happy.

The modern wine market is going strong. The total U.S. sales topped $62.7 billion in 2017. At 2.94 gallons per person each year, the U.S. is the largest wine consuming nation by volume. Like any other industry, wine is shaped by consumer trends. Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon are the top 2 favorites, but rosé is fast-growing, with a 59% increase in value in 2017, according to Nielsen data.

What Makes Wine Not Vegan? At its core, wine seems vegan. It’s just fermented grape juice. But a filtering process known as “fining,” which removes particles that settle to the bottom of the bottle and make wine hazy often uses animal products in the process. Traditional fining agents include gelatin (which comes from animal cartilage), egg whites, milk proteins (casein), isinglass (a kind of gelatin obtained from fish) and the dried swim bladder of fish. There are vegan alternatives, such as kaolin clay, bentonite clay and activated charcoal, but animal-based fining agents are cheaper since they are throw-away byproducts of animal agriculture.

Fining wine is more a matter of customer preference than necessity. In fact, sediment in wine ad to the taste but customers erroneously think it’s a sign of a bad wine. In the industry, these sediments are known as “dregs,” and despite the name, they’re not a bad thing. Dregs are essentially comprised of dead yeast cells, grape solids, tartrates, tannins, and phenolics. Tartrates give the wine a tart flavor and you may have even seen them in the form of red or white crystals on the side of the bottle. There are also sediments known as “gross lees” and “fine lees”. These are produced during the wine making process and they settle to the bottom of the wine barrel or vat. These are completely fine and do not impact on taste or quality at all. Some winemakers leave these in on purpose. There may be other reasons why a vineyard may choose to filter its wine, such as covering a bad harvest.

Vegan Certification Label

If you’re avoiding animal products, how can you ensure wine is vegan? It’s not as simple as reading the label.

There are databases like Barnivore, a database of nearly 45,000 alcoholic beverages, that lists vegan-friendly drinks. Or, you can buy from a source that only offers vegan wine. There’s also BevVeg, a law firm that provides vegan certification for food and beverage companies in more than 70 countries. BevVeg also has a free mobile app for both Android and iPhones with a database of over 50,000 wines.

There are at least 64 ingredients that can be added to wine without needing disclosure on the label, ranging from animal-based fining agents to color additives (such as MegaPurple, a grape concentrate added to “color correct” wine), oak chips (to replicate the flavor of aging in an oak wine barrel) and stabilizers.

If you see the BevVeg logo, your wine is vegan

You can see the full article on Dr. Chuma’s Wellness Site 

This article originally appeared on Dr. Chuma’s Wellness Site 

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Klaring af rødvin med æggehvide

Vinbladet: Vegan Wine

Vegansk vin

– fra niche til mainstream

Når to aktører fra planteriget, druer og gærceller, står for skabelsen af vin, må den ædle drik da være i orden for veganere. Men er det altid det? Problemet er efterbehandling af den færdiggærede vin med det formål at gøre den funklende klar og fjerne uønskede duft- og smagselementer som fx bitre, snerpende tanniner. Partiklerne (drue- og gærrester), der gør vinen tåget og uklar, er så små, at de svæver rundt i væsken og ikke fanges af et filter. De kolloide partikler har typisk en elektrisk ladning, der kan være positiv eller negativ. Et klaringsmiddel med modsat elektrisk ladning vil få

partiklerne til at klumpe sig sammen og synke til bunds. Vinbønderne i Bordeaux har i årevis brugt friske æggehvider til klaring og afrunding af deres rødvine. For langt de fleste er æggehvide et trygt og velkendt produkt, men det stammer unægtelig fra dyreriget, og det er her veganeren står af.

Listen over animalske klaringsmidler er ganske lang:
Æggehvide: En æggehvide på 30 g indeholder 12 g protein i form af ovalbumin med positiv elektrisk ladning. En frisk æggehvide per 50 l vin bruges til klaring og reduktion af tannin-niveauet i rødvin.
Mælk: (2 dl skummetmælk/100 l vin) har været brugt til at fjernede uønskede farvetoner og bitter smag i hvidvine og sherry. En liter mælk indeholder 30 g kasein og 10-15 g lactalbumin (proteiner med positiv ladning). I praksis bruges i vore dage ostestoffet kasein: 50 mg/l vin til generel klaring og 0,5-1 g/l til at fjerne brunlige farvetoner/bitterhed.
Blod: Okseblod med 70 g plasma-albumin (positiv ladning) per liter kan bruges til klaring og afrunding af rødvin (0,25 g/l) men har ikke været tilladt som klaringsmiddel i Europa siden 1987. Proteinet albumin fra dyreblod har i mange år været brugt til klaring af vin (20 g albuminpulver/100 l vin), men efter kogalskab-skandalen forbød EU for en sikkerheds skyld alle blodbaserede klaringsmidler.
Gelatine: Husblas fremstilles af proteinstoffet kollagen (positiv ladning) fra sener, knogler og hud, typisk fra svin og køer. Gelatine bruges til klaring af hvidvine (20-100 mg/l vin) og røde vine (30-150/l). Til reduktion af niveauet af snerpende tanniner bruges højere doser (70-530 mg/l).
Isinglass: Et proteinstof med positiv ladning (kollagen), der udvindes af svømmeblærer fra fisk som stør og havkat. Isinglass anvendes (10-50 mg/l) til at give hvidvine en brillant glans, fremhæve den rene frugt og runde vinen af.
Kitin: Chitosan (protein med stærk positiv ladning) er udvundet af pulveriserede skaller fra skaldyr som rejer og krabber.

Wine Fining

Er vinen kosher?

Det hebraiske ord ”kosher” betyder “egnet” eller “ren” og fortæller, at denne fødevare er det tilladt for troende jøder at spise eller drikke ifølge de jødiske spiseregler. Kun kød fra drøvtyggende dyr med spaltede klove er kosher. Svin, hest og kamel er således ikke kosher, mens fx okse- og lammekød er tilladt. De fleste slags fjerkræ er tilladt. Fisk er kun tilladt, hvis de har både finner og skæl. Desuden er mælkeprodukter og æg fra tilladte dyr kosher. Alle former for skaldyr, bløddyr og insekter er forbudt. I produktionen af kosher vin er gelatine, okseblod, isinglass og kasein totalt forbudt. De fleste kosher-vine er dermed egnede for veganere. Spørgsmålet er imidlertid om der er anvendt æggehvide som klaringsmiddel. Hønseæg er nemlig kosher, men hvert enkelt æg skal undersøges for blodpletter, der kan betyde at ægget er befrugtet og skal kasseres.

I princippet binder et klaringsmiddel sig til urenheder i vinen, synker til bunds i karret og fjernes ved omstikning eller filtrering af vinen. Vinen vil derfor kun indeholde minimale rester af klaringsmidlet. Særligt følsomme allergikere kan reagere med symptomer ved indtagelse af blot få milligram af det fødemiddel, den pågældende er overfølsom for. En ud af hundrede voksne danskere er overfølsomme for proteinstoffer fra æg, mælk og fisk. EU-Regulativ No 579/2012 forpligter vinproducenterne til at angive tilstedeværelsen af sulfitter, æg og mælk på etiketten per 1. juli 2012 – gerne suppleret med et logo.

Hvis der er brugt mælk eller æg som klaringsmiddel skal det deklareres med mindre vinen efterfølgende er testet negativ ved en målemetode med et detektionsgrænse på 0,25 mg/l. Det svarer til en enkelt dråbe mælk eller æggehvide opløst i 200 liter vin. Vin klaret med isinglass er permanent undtaget fra kravet om mærkning, da det ikke anses for at udgøre en helbredsrisiko for fiskeallergikere.

Forskere har konkluderet, at risikoen for en fødemiddelallergiker ved indtagelse af vin klaret med æggehvide, kasein eller isinglass er ekstremt lav, men det hjælper ikke til at gøre vinen tilladt for en veganer. Veganisme er ikke en religion, men en social bevægelse, der kæmper for rettigheder til dyrene, men veganere har den opfattelse til fælles med ortodokse jøder, at det er selve anvendelse af animalske produkter, der er forbudt, og ikke hvorvidt der kan påvises små rester af animalsk protein i den færdige vin.

Red wine and veggies

Hvordan laver man vegan-venlige vine?

Flere vinifikationsmetoder vil føre frem til vegan-venlige vine:

  1. Vinifikation efter naturmetoden: Vinbonden giver urenhederne god tid til at samle sig og synke til bunds i gæringskaret. Ved omstikning af vinen til et rent kar, fjernes bundfaldet, og processen kan efter behov gennemføres flere gange. Der anvendes typisk ikke filtrering. På etiketten kan der fx stå ”unfined and unfilteret”. Det er en tidsrøvende og arbejdskrævende ─ og derfor bekostelig ─ metode, som mange producenter af konsumvin ikke har råd til. Naturvin lavet efter princippet ”intet føjes til vinen og intet tages væk fra vinen” vil typisk anvende denne metode og naturvin er dermed vegan-venlig.
  2. Anvendelse af ikke-animalske klaringsmidler:
    Alginat: Et positivt ladet produkt bestående af komplekse kulhydrater (polysakkarider) med positiv elektrisk ladning, der er udvundet fra marine brunalgers cellevæg.
    Kieselsol: Siliciumdioxid (kisel som gel eller kolloid opløsning) er et mineral, der findes i jordskorpen som kvarts. Kiselgel er negativt ladet og anvendes (0,1-0,3 ml/l) til klaring og stabilisering af vinen.
    Bentonit: En negativt ladet lerart (aluminium silikat) dannet af vulkansk aske. Bentonit anvendes i doser på 0,2-1,5 g/l og kan absorbere urenheder i en mængde svarende til flere gange sin egen vægt.
    PVPP: Polyvinylpolypyrolidon (100-200 mg/l) er et uopløseligt, nylonbaseret stof med protein-lignende egenskaber, der binder sig til uønskede farvetoner (brunfarvning), bitre tanniner og uønskede lugte fra vinen.
    Aktivt kul: Mikroporøst kul karakteriseret ved et stort indre overfladeareal (typisk flere hundrede m2 pr. gram) og er dermed velegnet til adsorption af urenheder fra væsker. AAA Carbon (0,1-1,1 g/l) anvendes til at fjerne uønsket lugt fra vinen. KBB Carbon (30-260 mg/l) anvendes til at fjerne uønskede, brunlige farvetoner (oxidation) fra hvidvin.
    Vegansk gelatine: Husblas der udelukkende er plantebaseret.

Hvordan finder man vegan-venlige vine?

Det er ikke så let at finde vine på det danske marked, der med sikkerhed er vegan-venlige. De færreste vinproducenter gør som Bonny Doon Winery, der siden 2008 har oplistet dels vinens basis-ingredienser (fx druer, svovldioxid), dels midler brugt ved vinifikationen (fx naturgær, vinsyre og bentonit). Deklarationen bevidner Bonny Doons engagement i produktion af levende, naturlig vin og vinhusets løfte om transparens i alle forhold vedrørende vinproduktionen. Faktisk er alle Bonny Doons vine vegan-venlige, og efter brugen af æggehvide til klaring af en ung Cabernet i 1985 har vingården ikke anvendt animalske ingredienser.

I Storbritannien er der nu over ½ million veganere ifølge ”the Vegan Society” ─ verdens ældste veganer-organisation. Det er et stort spring i vejret fra de ca. 150.000 medlemmer, foreningen havde for 10 år siden, og dertil kommer en million briter, der spiser vegetarisk. Det voksende antal vegetarer og veganere lægger pres på den engelske detailhandel med mærkbare resultater til følge:

Coop har nu en godt 100 vegan-venlige vine i sortimentet og forventer en ekspansion af dette vinsegment.
TESCO har oprettet en søgefunktion på “vegan wine”: 163 af 216 vine er vegan-venlige.
Sainsbury markedsfører 245 vegan-venlige vine, der alle er mærket som egnet for veganere på etiketten.
Waitrose har over 700 vegan-venlige vine på hylderne, bl.a. en topsælgende Prosecco.
Majestic Wines giver ved en søgning information om 66 vegan-venlige vine.
Marks & Spencer har et bredt sortiment på 184 vegan-venlige vine.

Det internationale advokatfirma BevVeg! har specialiseret sig i certificering af produkter, der lever op til vegansk standard og udsteder en logo-garanti for at der ikke er anvendt animalske produkter. Den europæiske Vegetar Union har en certificeringsinstans for veganske produkter, der mærkes med et V-Label Vegan.

Vegan Certified WineBichel vine oplyser at Vegan Society har autoriseret det chilenske vinhus Koyle til at bruge deres logo, som sikrer at alle husets vine er fri for animalske produkter. Autorisationen er så ny, at den først er registreret på etiketterne fra årgang 2018. Et eksempel er Koyle Costa La Flor Sauvignon Blanc 2018, lavet af økologisk dyrkede druer fra San Antonio Valley. Vinen er netop ankommet til Bichels lager i Hjortshøj og endnu ikke kommet med på Bichels vinliste, men vi fik lejlighed til et nærstudium af flasken. Den elegante etiket på flaskens forside er prydet med blomsten, La Flor, og på bagside-etiketten dukker det magiske ord, Vegan, op blandt de øvrige data om vinen. Det er godt nyt for danske veganere, der slipper for det animalske uden at gå glip af noget rent smagsmæssigt. Efter Lars Bo Henriksens erfaring kan man nemlig ikke smage forskel på, om klaring af vinen er sket med animalske eller veganske midler. Lars Bo Henriksen er direktør for Bichel med mange års erfaring fra arbejde i vinbranchen, så hans ord står til troende.

This article originally appeared on Vinbladet

 

Vegansk vin

– fra niche til mainstream

Når to aktører fra planteriget, druer og gærceller, står for skabelsen af vin, må den ædle drik da være i orden for veganere. Men er det altid det? Problemet er efterbehandling af den færdiggærede vin med det formål at gøre den funklende klar og fjerne uønskede duft- og smagselementer som fx bitre, snerpende tanniner. Partiklerne (drue- og gærrester), der gør vinen tåget og uklar, er så små, at de svæver rundt i væsken og ikke fanges af et filter. De kolloide partikler har typisk en elektrisk ladning, der kan være positiv eller negativ. Et klaringsmiddel med modsat elektrisk ladning vil få

partiklerne til at klumpe sig sammen og synke til bunds. Vinbønderne i Bordeaux har i årevis brugt friske æggehvider til klaring og afrunding af deres rødvine. For langt de fleste er æggehvide et trygt og velkendt produkt, men det stammer unægtelig fra dyreriget, og det er her veganeren står af.

Listen over animalske klaringsmidler er ganske lang:
Æggehvide: En æggehvide på 30 g indeholder 12 g protein i form af ovalbumin med positiv elektrisk ladning. En frisk æggehvide per 50 l vin bruges til klaring og reduktion af tannin-niveauet i rødvin.
Mælk: (2 dl skummetmælk/100 l vin) har været brugt til at fjernede uønskede farvetoner og bitter smag i hvidvine og sherry. En liter mælk indeholder 30 g kasein og 10-15 g lactalbumin (proteiner med positiv ladning). I praksis bruges i vore dage ostestoffet kasein: 50 mg/l vin til generel klaring og 0,5-1 g/l til at fjerne brunlige farvetoner/bitterhed.
Blod: Okseblod med 70 g plasma-albumin (positiv ladning) per liter kan bruges til klaring og afrunding af rødvin (0,25 g/l) men har ikke været tilladt som klaringsmiddel i Europa siden 1987. Proteinet albumin fra dyreblod har i mange år været brugt til klaring af vin (20 g albuminpulver/100 l vin), men efter kogalskab-skandalen forbød EU for en sikkerheds skyld alle blodbaserede klaringsmidler.
Gelatine: Husblas fremstilles af proteinstoffet kollagen (positiv ladning) fra sener, knogler og hud, typisk fra svin og køer. Gelatine bruges til klaring af hvidvine (20-100 mg/l vin) og røde vine (30-150/l). Til reduktion af niveauet af snerpende tanniner bruges højere doser (70-530 mg/l).
Isinglass: Et proteinstof med positiv ladning (kollagen), der udvindes af svømmeblærer fra fisk som stør og havkat. Isinglass anvendes (10-50 mg/l) til at give hvidvine en brillant glans, fremhæve den rene frugt og runde vinen af.
Kitin: Chitosan (protein med stærk positiv ladning) er udvundet af pulveriserede skaller fra skaldyr som rejer og krabber.

Wine Fining

Er vinen kosher?

Det hebraiske ord ”kosher” betyder “egnet” eller “ren” og fortæller, at denne fødevare er det tilladt for troende jøder at spise eller drikke ifølge de jødiske spiseregler. Kun kød fra drøvtyggende dyr med spaltede klove er kosher. Svin, hest og kamel er således ikke kosher, mens fx okse- og lammekød er tilladt. De fleste slags fjerkræ er tilladt. Fisk er kun tilladt, hvis de har både finner og skæl. Desuden er mælkeprodukter og æg fra tilladte dyr kosher. Alle former for skaldyr, bløddyr og insekter er forbudt. I produktionen af kosher vin er gelatine, okseblod, isinglass og kasein totalt forbudt. De fleste kosher-vine er dermed egnede for veganere. Spørgsmålet er imidlertid om der er anvendt æggehvide som klaringsmiddel. Hønseæg er nemlig kosher, men hvert enkelt æg skal undersøges for blodpletter, der kan betyde at ægget er befrugtet og skal kasseres.

I princippet binder et klaringsmiddel sig til urenheder i vinen, synker til bunds i karret og fjernes ved omstikning eller filtrering af vinen. Vinen vil derfor kun indeholde minimale rester af klaringsmidlet. Særligt følsomme allergikere kan reagere med symptomer ved indtagelse af blot få milligram af det fødemiddel, den pågældende er overfølsom for. En ud af hundrede voksne danskere er overfølsomme for proteinstoffer fra æg, mælk og fisk. EU-Regulativ No 579/2012 forpligter vinproducenterne til at angive tilstedeværelsen af sulfitter, æg og mælk på etiketten per 1. juli 2012 – gerne suppleret med et logo.

Hvis der er brugt mælk eller æg som klaringsmiddel skal det deklareres med mindre vinen efterfølgende er testet negativ ved en målemetode med et detektionsgrænse på 0,25 mg/l. Det svarer til en enkelt dråbe mælk eller æggehvide opløst i 200 liter vin. Vin klaret med isinglass er permanent undtaget fra kravet om mærkning, da det ikke anses for at udgøre en helbredsrisiko for fiskeallergikere.

Forskere har konkluderet, at risikoen for en fødemiddelallergiker ved indtagelse af vin klaret med æggehvide, kasein eller isinglass er ekstremt lav, men det hjælper ikke til at gøre vinen tilladt for en veganer. Veganisme er ikke en religion, men en social bevægelse, der kæmper for rettigheder til dyrene, men veganere har den opfattelse til fælles med ortodokse jøder, at det er selve anvendelse af animalske produkter, der er forbudt, og ikke hvorvidt der kan påvises små rester af animalsk protein i den færdige vin.

Red wine and veggies

Hvordan laver man vegan-venlige vine?

Flere vinifikationsmetoder vil føre frem til vegan-venlige vine:

  1. Vinifikation efter naturmetoden: Vinbonden giver urenhederne god tid til at samle sig og synke til bunds i gæringskaret. Ved omstikning af vinen til et rent kar, fjernes bundfaldet, og processen kan efter behov gennemføres flere gange. Der anvendes typisk ikke filtrering. På etiketten kan der fx stå ”unfined and unfilteret”. Det er en tidsrøvende og arbejdskrævende ─ og derfor bekostelig ─ metode, som mange producenter af konsumvin ikke har råd til. Naturvin lavet efter princippet ”intet føjes til vinen og intet tages væk fra vinen” vil typisk anvende denne metode og naturvin er dermed vegan-venlig.
  2. Anvendelse af ikke-animalske klaringsmidler:
    Alginat: Et positivt ladet produkt bestående af komplekse kulhydrater (polysakkarider) med positiv elektrisk ladning, der er udvundet fra marine brunalgers cellevæg.
    Kieselsol: Siliciumdioxid (kisel som gel eller kolloid opløsning) er et mineral, der findes i jordskorpen som kvarts. Kiselgel er negativt ladet og anvendes (0,1-0,3 ml/l) til klaring og stabilisering af vinen.
    Bentonit: En negativt ladet lerart (aluminium silikat) dannet af vulkansk aske. Bentonit anvendes i doser på 0,2-1,5 g/l og kan absorbere urenheder i en mængde svarende til flere gange sin egen vægt.
    PVPP: Polyvinylpolypyrolidon (100-200 mg/l) er et uopløseligt, nylonbaseret stof med protein-lignende egenskaber, der binder sig til uønskede farvetoner (brunfarvning), bitre tanniner og uønskede lugte fra vinen.
    Aktivt kul: Mikroporøst kul karakteriseret ved et stort indre overfladeareal (typisk flere hundrede m2 pr. gram) og er dermed velegnet til adsorption af urenheder fra væsker. AAA Carbon (0,1-1,1 g/l) anvendes til at fjerne uønsket lugt fra vinen. KBB Carbon (30-260 mg/l) anvendes til at fjerne uønskede, brunlige farvetoner (oxidation) fra hvidvin.
    Vegansk gelatine: Husblas der udelukkende er plantebaseret.

Hvordan finder man vegan-venlige vine?

Det er ikke så let at finde vine på det danske marked, der med sikkerhed er vegan-venlige. De færreste vinproducenter gør som Bonny Doon Winery, der siden 2008 har oplistet dels vinens basis-ingredienser (fx druer, svovldioxid), dels midler brugt ved vinifikationen (fx naturgær, vinsyre og bentonit). Deklarationen bevidner Bonny Doons engagement i produktion af levende, naturlig vin og vinhusets løfte om transparens i alle forhold vedrørende vinproduktionen. Faktisk er alle Bonny Doons vine vegan-venlige, og efter brugen af æggehvide til klaring af en ung Cabernet i 1985 har vingården ikke anvendt animalske ingredienser.

I Storbritannien er der nu over ½ million veganere ifølge ”the Vegan Society” ─ verdens ældste veganer-organisation. Det er et stort spring i vejret fra de ca. 150.000 medlemmer, foreningen havde for 10 år siden, og dertil kommer en million briter, der spiser vegetarisk. Det voksende antal vegetarer og veganere lægger pres på den engelske detailhandel med mærkbare resultater til følge:

Coop har nu en godt 100 vegan-venlige vine i sortimentet og forventer en ekspansion af dette vinsegment.
TESCO har oprettet en søgefunktion på “vegan wine”: 163 af 216 vine er vegan-venlige.
Sainsbury markedsfører 245 vegan-venlige vine, der alle er mærket som egnet for veganere på etiketten.
Waitrose har over 700 vegan-venlige vine på hylderne, bl.a. en topsælgende Prosecco.
Majestic Wines giver ved en søgning information om 66 vegan-venlige vine.
Marks & Spencer har et bredt sortiment på 184 vegan-venlige vine.

Det internationale advokatfirma BevVeg! har specialiseret sig i certificering af produkter, der lever op til vegansk standard og udsteder en logo-garanti for at der ikke er anvendt animalske produkter. Den europæiske Vegetar Union har en certificeringsinstans for veganske produkter, der mærkes med et V-Label Vegan.

Vegan Certified WineBichel vine oplyser at Vegan Society har autoriseret det chilenske vinhus Koyle til at bruge deres logo, som sikrer at alle husets vine er fri for animalske produkter. Autorisationen er så ny, at den først er registreret på etiketterne fra årgang 2018. Et eksempel er Koyle Costa La Flor Sauvignon Blanc 2018, lavet af økologisk dyrkede druer fra San Antonio Valley. Vinen er netop ankommet til Bichels lager i Hjortshøj og endnu ikke kommet med på Bichels vinliste, men vi fik lejlighed til et nærstudium af flasken. Den elegante etiket på flaskens forside er prydet med blomsten, La Flor, og på bagside-etiketten dukker det magiske ord, Vegan, op blandt de øvrige data om vinen. Det er godt nyt for danske veganere, der slipper for det animalske uden at gå glip af noget rent smagsmæssigt. Efter Lars Bo Henriksens erfaring kan man nemlig ikke smage forskel på, om klaring af vinen er sket med animalske eller veganske midler. Lars Bo Henriksen er direktør for Bichel med mange års erfaring fra arbejde i vinbranchen, så hans ord står til troende.

This article originally appeared on Vinbladet

 

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Wine Align: John Szabo’s VINTAGES Preview – Sept 15, 2018

John Szabo’s VINTAGES Preview – Sept 15, 2018

What’s a Vegan Wine? & International Smart Buys 

John Szabo, MS‘Consumer activism’ in the food and beverage world is on the rise. Demand for organic, biodynamic and/or sustainably certified products is growing as consumers seek to support ethically and environmentally-minded companies. This week I’d like to shed some light on a related trend: veganism. Plant-based lifers with both a health and a moral/ethical angle are mushrooming, and demand for vegan products, including wine is escalating. Yes, that’s right. Not all wines are vegan. Let me explain. The WineAlign crü has also picked out the smartest international buys of the September 15th VINTAGES release, and next week David will cover the main theme, Ontario. Read on to drink for a better world.

What’s a Vegan Wine? 

There is confusion about vegan wines. Even many friends in the trade I have asked in the last few weeks have responded with a perplexed look. Knowing what’s what made challenging by the fact that wine, unlike everything else we put into our bodies, is not required to have a list of ingredients. But anyone who sells wine should bone up on the trend. It’s only a matter of time before someone asks you for a vegan wine. And vegans want to know what to drink.

Numbers are murky in Canada, but according to Google Trends, veganism is the number one health trend in the US, beating Paleo

5/2 and gluten-free diets to the top spot. Google searches for “vegan” are up 90%. 6% of the US population now identifies as vegan, compared to 1% in 2014, while in the UK veganism has rocketed from an estimated 0.5 million people in 2016 to more than 3.5 million today, 5% of the population. If you don’t believe that the trend is also growing in Canada, just take a stroll through Parkdale in Toronto. It’s been renamed Vegandale. And when high-profile restauranteurs like the Chase Group and Grant Van Gameren open vegan restaurants (Planta and Rosalinda, respectively), to name but two, you know something is up.

vegandale

In contrast to vegetarianism, a purely dietary choice, veganism is not just about health and diet. It’s also adopted for environmental, ethical, and compassionate reasons. Influential documentaries such as Cowspiracy and What the Health have exposed the rather dramatic environmental cost of the meat and dairy industries. Philosophical opposition to exploitation of all animals is another driver.

cowspiracy

In short, veganism is a way of life, one that excludes the consumption or use of any products made from animals, including eggs, dairy, and honey.

The definition of veganism by the Vegan Society: 

“A philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude—as far as is possible and practicable—all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment. In dietary terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products derived wholly or partly from animals.”

So, where do wines run afoul of this philosophy?

For starters, it’s common practice for wines to be put through some sort of fining/clarification process before bottling to remove unwanted particles like dead yeast cells, proteins, and tannins, and to soften texture. Various fining agents are used to achieve this, and many are non-vegan such as gelatin (protein from animal, skin, bones and cartilage), isinglass (made from fish swim bladders), casein (milk protein), albumen (egg whites), sea shells, and rennet. Although all of these agents are filtered out, with virtually no residue in the finished wine, it’s still a vegan no-no.

Vegan wines, on the other hand, can be fined/clarified with vegan-friendly alternatives such as bentonite or kaolin clay, limestone, silica gel, plant-based casein, rennet or gelatin, or filtered through mediums like diatomaceous earth, paper, ceramics or charcoal. “We use pumpkin protein, potato protein or pea protein, kind of like passing a vegan smoothie through the wine,” says Sherry Karlo of Karlo Estates in Prince Edward County, the first vegan-certified wine producer in North America.

karlo estates prince edward county

There is also of course the tried and true, vegan-friendly method of time. Leave a wine long enough in barrel or tank, and particles will settle on the bottom, allowing the naturally clarified wine to be siphoned off the top.

De-acidifying wine is another process during which animal products can slip into your wine. Agents include unrease from crabs or mussels (a crystallizable enzyme), animal mucus (animal lysozome), or Milch (urebakterien, similar to milk). Vegan alternatives for de-acidification include plant-based unrease, lysozome, and urebakterien.

An even more hidden source of non-vegan products used in the winery is sugar. Sugar is occasionally added to wines in a process called chaptalization, which prolongs fermentation and increases the final alcohol content of the wine. The trouble is, some refined sugars are processed with bone char, which is unacceptable to many vegans. This is something I’m sure many winemakers are not even aware off (I certainly wasn’t until I did the research).

When it comes to packaging, a wax capsule that contains beeswax would be frowned upon, as would non-vegan glues used on labels. But in practice, switching to a vegan protocol in the winery is relatively simple – there’s really no need for any animal products. Indeed, many wines would qualify as vegan, even if the winery doesn’t know it.

But taking vegan protocols a step further, back into the vineyard, may be more of a challenge. Since the use of industrial chemical fertilizers is increasingly, and thankfully, being reduced around the world, most green-friendly growers turn to natural manures and compost. But a strictly vegan wine must be made from vineyards in which no animal-based fertilizers or sprays are used. (That means out with the famous biodynamic preparation 500, for which cow manure is put into a cow horn and buried over winter under the vines, dug up in the spring, diluted in water and sprayed in the vineyard.)

horns

Yet here, too, there’s an answer. Sebastiano Castiglioni, owner of organic/biodynamic/vegan-certified Querciabella in the Chianti Classico district in Tuscany has found a viable alternative: “As for fertilizers, we produce green manure (derived from composted plants), instead of all the ‘traditional’ preparations based on cow manure. We also grow our own medicinal and aromatic herbs for the compounds we spray, and we grow our own seeds for cover-crops mixes encompassing over 30 plant species at a time.” Judging by the quality of Querciabella wines, Castiglioni is certainly on to something.

But it doesn’t end at plant-based fertilizers and sprays. Ploughing by horse, another favoured organic/biodynamic practice and great for journalist photo-ops, is likewise, strictly speaking, not simpatico with the vegan philosophy of non-exploitation of animals. And I’m not certain about the practice of letting sheep wander your vineyard to graze to keep the grass down, or releasing chickens or geese to scratch the dirt and naturally fertilize – that would depend on how orthodox a vegan you ask – though I suspect that, too, is a no-no (is that exploitation?). But slaughtering the animal labour force at the end of the season and then selling or eating them, is, well, definitely out.

Vegan Certifications

There are no official government regulations concerning vegan certification, though many independent bodies exist that will provide certification and the use of a logo. Bellissima Prosecco, for example, is certified by BevVeg. All of certification organizations rely on the honesty of the manufacturer. The application process for BevVeg, for example, “will require you to provide the ingredients and products for which you are seeking BevVeg

certification.” Attorneys then review the application, and if satisfied that the products meet BevVeg’s standards, proceed to a contract to obtain BevVeg certification.

vegan certification logo

 

Physical spot checks are, I suspect, at least for the time being, impractical. But I also suspect the risk of retribution from the more zealous and extreme factions of the vegan world, should you be found out, would be motivation enough to keep producers on the up-and-up.

I’m sure that in time the LCBO will come out with an official line on vegan certifications. For now, none are recognized, although they are allowed to remain on labels. This is unlike unrecognized organic certifications– for these the winery or agent is required to add a sticker to the bottle stating: “organic certification not recognized in Canada”.

Awareness of vegan wines is still extremely low for the time being. Few are certified, even if many would qualify. That will change. But for now, anyone wishing to purchase vegan-friendly wine is advised to contact the producer directly and ask about the processes I’ve listed above, to see if the wine qualifies.

Even if you won’t be shopping for vegan wine anytime soon, it’s worth stopping for a moment and considering the motivation behind veganism. As Castiglioni points out: “It’s a thorny matter that should make us reflect on how ubiquitous animal products are in our everyday life. Most people wouldn’t worry about wine (nor about sugar or glue for that matter), but the truth is, veganism has to be the moral baseline of business if we truly want to see change. It’s imperative that consumers demand transparency and clear labelling to companies because the market’s demand is the most efficient way to achieve change, especially in the food sector.”

This article originally appeared on Wine Align. You can read the full article here.

John Szabo’s VINTAGES Preview – Sept 15, 2018

What’s a Vegan Wine? & International Smart Buys 

John Szabo, MS‘Consumer activism’ in the food and beverage world is on the rise. Demand for organic, biodynamic and/or sustainably certified products is growing as consumers seek to support ethically and environmentally-minded companies. This week I’d like to shed some light on a related trend: veganism. Plant-based lifers with both a health and a moral/ethical angle are mushrooming, and demand for vegan products, including wine is escalating. Yes, that’s right. Not all wines are vegan. Let me explain. The WineAlign crü has also picked out the smartest international buys of the September 15th VINTAGES release, and next week David will cover the main theme, Ontario. Read on to drink for a better world.

What’s a Vegan Wine? 

There is confusion about vegan wines. Even many friends in the trade I have asked in the last few weeks have responded with a perplexed look. Knowing what’s what made challenging by the fact that wine, unlike everything else we put into our bodies, is not required to have a list of ingredients. But anyone who sells wine should bone up on the trend. It’s only a matter of time before someone asks you for a vegan wine. And vegans want to know what to drink.

Numbers are murky in Canada, but according to Google Trends, veganism is the number one health trend in the US, beating Paleo

5/2 and gluten-free diets to the top spot. Google searches for “vegan” are up 90%. 6% of the US population now identifies as vegan, compared to 1% in 2014, while in the UK veganism has rocketed from an estimated 0.5 million people in 2016 to more than 3.5 million today, 5% of the population. If you don’t believe that the trend is also growing in Canada, just take a stroll through Parkdale in Toronto. It’s been renamed Vegandale. And when high-profile restauranteurs like the Chase Group and Grant Van Gameren open vegan restaurants (Planta and Rosalinda, respectively), to name but two, you know something is up.

vegandale

In contrast to vegetarianism, a purely dietary choice, veganism is not just about health and diet. It’s also adopted for environmental, ethical, and compassionate reasons. Influential documentaries such as Cowspiracy and What the Health have exposed the rather dramatic environmental cost of the meat and dairy industries. Philosophical opposition to exploitation of all animals is another driver.

cowspiracy

In short, veganism is a way of life, one that excludes the consumption or use of any products made from animals, including eggs, dairy, and honey.

The definition of veganism by the Vegan Society: 

“A philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude—as far as is possible and practicable—all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment. In dietary terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products derived wholly or partly from animals.”

So, where do wines run afoul of this philosophy?

For starters, it’s common practice for wines to be put through some sort of fining/clarification process before bottling to remove unwanted particles like dead yeast cells, proteins, and tannins, and to soften texture. Various fining agents are used to achieve this, and many are non-vegan such as gelatin (protein from animal, skin, bones and cartilage), isinglass (made from fish swim bladders), casein (milk protein), albumen (egg whites), sea shells, and rennet. Although all of these agents are filtered out, with virtually no residue in the finished wine, it’s still a vegan no-no.

Vegan wines, on the other hand, can be fined/clarified with vegan-friendly alternatives such as bentonite or kaolin clay, limestone, silica gel, plant-based casein, rennet or gelatin, or filtered through mediums like diatomaceous earth, paper, ceramics or charcoal. “We use pumpkin protein, potato protein or pea protein, kind of like passing a vegan smoothie through the wine,” says Sherry Karlo of Karlo Estates in Prince Edward County, the first vegan-certified wine producer in North America.

karlo estates prince edward county

There is also of course the tried and true, vegan-friendly method of time. Leave a wine long enough in barrel or tank, and particles will settle on the bottom, allowing the naturally clarified wine to be siphoned off the top.

De-acidifying wine is another process during which animal products can slip into your wine. Agents include unrease from crabs or mussels (a crystallizable enzyme), animal mucus (animal lysozome), or Milch (urebakterien, similar to milk). Vegan alternatives for de-acidification include plant-based unrease, lysozome, and urebakterien.

An even more hidden source of non-vegan products used in the winery is sugar. Sugar is occasionally added to wines in a process called chaptalization, which prolongs fermentation and increases the final alcohol content of the wine. The trouble is, some refined sugars are processed with bone char, which is unacceptable to many vegans. This is something I’m sure many winemakers are not even aware off (I certainly wasn’t until I did the research).

When it comes to packaging, a wax capsule that contains beeswax would be frowned upon, as would non-vegan glues used on labels. But in practice, switching to a vegan protocol in the winery is relatively simple – there’s really no need for any animal products. Indeed, many wines would qualify as vegan, even if the winery doesn’t know it.

But taking vegan protocols a step further, back into the vineyard, may be more of a challenge. Since the use of industrial chemical fertilizers is increasingly, and thankfully, being reduced around the world, most green-friendly growers turn to natural manures and compost. But a strictly vegan wine must be made from vineyards in which no animal-based fertilizers or sprays are used. (That means out with the famous biodynamic preparation 500, for which cow manure is put into a cow horn and buried over winter under the vines, dug up in the spring, diluted in water and sprayed in the vineyard.)

horns

Yet here, too, there’s an answer. Sebastiano Castiglioni, owner of organic/biodynamic/vegan-certified Querciabella in the Chianti Classico district in Tuscany has found a viable alternative: “As for fertilizers, we produce green manure (derived from composted plants), instead of all the ‘traditional’ preparations based on cow manure. We also grow our own medicinal and aromatic herbs for the compounds we spray, and we grow our own seeds for cover-crops mixes encompassing over 30 plant species at a time.” Judging by the quality of Querciabella wines, Castiglioni is certainly on to something.

But it doesn’t end at plant-based fertilizers and sprays. Ploughing by horse, another favoured organic/biodynamic practice and great for journalist photo-ops, is likewise, strictly speaking, not simpatico with the vegan philosophy of non-exploitation of animals. And I’m not certain about the practice of letting sheep wander your vineyard to graze to keep the grass down, or releasing chickens or geese to scratch the dirt and naturally fertilize – that would depend on how orthodox a vegan you ask – though I suspect that, too, is a no-no (is that exploitation?). But slaughtering the animal labour force at the end of the season and then selling or eating them, is, well, definitely out.

Vegan Certifications

There are no official government regulations concerning vegan certification, though many independent bodies exist that will provide certification and the use of a logo. Bellissima Prosecco, for example, is certified by BevVeg. All of certification organizations rely on the honesty of the manufacturer. The application process for BevVeg, for example, “will require you to provide the ingredients and products for which you are seeking BevVeg

certification.” Attorneys then review the application, and if satisfied that the products meet BevVeg’s standards, proceed to a contract to obtain BevVeg certification.

vegan certification logo

 

Physical spot checks are, I suspect, at least for the time being, impractical. But I also suspect the risk of retribution from the more zealous and extreme factions of the vegan world, should you be found out, would be motivation enough to keep producers on the up-and-up.

I’m sure that in time the LCBO will come out with an official line on vegan certifications. For now, none are recognized, although they are allowed to remain on labels. This is unlike unrecognized organic certifications– for these the winery or agent is required to add a sticker to the bottle stating: “organic certification not recognized in Canada”.

Awareness of vegan wines is still extremely low for the time being. Few are certified, even if many would qualify. That will change. But for now, anyone wishing to purchase vegan-friendly wine is advised to contact the producer directly and ask about the processes I’ve listed above, to see if the wine qualifies.

Even if you won’t be shopping for vegan wine anytime soon, it’s worth stopping for a moment and considering the motivation behind veganism. As Castiglioni points out: “It’s a thorny matter that should make us reflect on how ubiquitous animal products are in our everyday life. Most people wouldn’t worry about wine (nor about sugar or glue for that matter), but the truth is, veganism has to be the moral baseline of business if we truly want to see change. It’s imperative that consumers demand transparency and clear labelling to companies because the market’s demand is the most efficient way to achieve change, especially in the food sector.”

This article originally appeared on Wine Align. You can read the full article here.

Read more

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